The following is part of A Comprehensible Guide to Industrial Ethernet by Wilfried Voss.
Note: This chapter can only provide a rudimentary overview of the underlying Ethernet technology. There are already a significant number of works on TCP/IP available (see also the “References” appendix) that explain the topic in great detail.
Nevertheless, the information in this chapter is not only sufficient in reference to Industrial Ethernet protocols as introduced in later chapters; it is mandatory for understanding the differences between the various, available protocol versions. Consequently, this chapter provides unique insights into Industrial Ethernet technologies by adding specific references where necessary.
Many of the characteristics that describe Ethernet and TCP/IP are common to most network technologies, specifically industrial networking (with or without Ethernet). Understanding how Ethernet addresses the issues at hand provides a foundation that will improve the understanding of networking in general and, most prominently, that of Industrial Ethernet technologies.
The following image represents an example of a simple Ethernet TCP/IP network as it is familiar to all of us and as it was originally intended.
Ethernet is a family of computer networking technologies for local area networks (LAN) that was commercially introduced in 1980. Standardized in IEEE 802.3, Ethernet has largely replaced other competing wired LAN technologies, and nowadays it represents not only the backbone of the Internet but also advanced industrial control.
Systems communicating over Ethernet partition a stream of data into individual packets called frames. Each frame contains source and destination addresses and error-checking data to ensure the detection of damaged data and initiate re-transmission when necessary.
In layman’s terms, Ethernet covers the physical medium (e.g., cables, RJ45 ports, LAN cards, routers, switches, hubs, etc.) plus some basic, low-level protocol features like, for instance, message collision detection, but while Ethernet represents an excellent transmission medium for data, it falls short of offering a complete protocol solution.
The TCP/IP model (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is a descriptive framework for the Internet Protocol Suite of computer network protocols created in the 1970s by DARPA, an agency of the United States Department of Defense. It defines a set of general design guidelines and implementations of specific networking protocols to enable computers to communicate over a network. TCP/IP provides end-to-end connectivity, specifying how data should be formatted, addressed, transmitted, routed, and received at the destination.
netSHIELD"NSHIELD 52-RE" - Industrial Ethernet Development Platform
It enables the user to connect a Microcontroller based application to all market relevant Real-Time-Ethernet industrial networks with best-in-class real-time capabilities, like PROFINET, Ethernet/IP, EtherCAT, and others.
The extension board features a netX 52 system-on-chip. The netX SoC architecture is designed from the ground up for the highest demands on flexibility, determinism, and performance in terms of multi-protocol capability and low latency for short cycle times. The heterogeneous multi-core architecture features an ARM processor core, coupled with a flexible communication subsystem (xC) for varieties of industrial applications support.
The following is part of A Comprehensible Guide to Industrial Ethernet by Wilfried Voss. The OSI Reference Model is at the heart of serial networking technologies, including Industrial Ethernet. The understanding of the model is mandatory, not only when it comes to understanding Ethernet TCP/IP, the underlying technology of Industrial Ethernet; it also serves as a model explaining how the different [...]
The following is part of A Comprehensible Guide to Industrial Ethernet by Wilfried Voss.The distinct differences between a Client/Server and a Master/Slave network model have a significant impact on the design of Industrial Ethernet applications not only in terms of device/process interaction but also the data traffic pattern, which may require increased use of network segmentation [...]
The following is part of A Comprehensible Guide to Industrial Ethernet by Wilfried Voss.Distributed Control, and the advantages that come with it, is best demonstrated through the classic, lean Bus network structure. There are, however, several different network topologies that serve virtually the same purpose but, at the same time, have their individual characteristics that are [...]
Learn about the latest developments in automotive Ethernet technology and implementation with this fully revised second edition. Including approximately twenty-five percent new material and greater technical detail, coverage is expanded to include: Detailed explanations of how the 100BASE-T1 PHY and 1000 BASE-T1 PHY technologies actually work A step-by-step description of how the 1000BASE-T1 channel was derived A summary of [...]
The Arduino is an open source micro-controller built on a single circuit board that is capable of receiving sensory input from the environment and controlling interactive physical objects. It is also a development environment that allows the writing of software to the board, and is programmed in the Arduino programming language. It is used for a variety [...]
Artila Electronics, a designer and manufacturer of embedded device networking and computing, released their RIO-2015PG, a FreeRTOS programmable remote I/O module. The RIO-2015PG is powered by a 32-bit Atmel SAM4E16E 120MHz ARM Cortex M4 processor, which comes with 256KB SRAM, 3MB Flash and the FreeRTOS real time operating system. The industrial I/O of RIO-2015PG features [...]